To design and implement an effective emission control strategy for black carbon (BC), the locations and strength of BC sources must be identified. Lack of accurate source information from the Russian Federation has created difficulty for a range of research and policy activities in the Arctic because Russia occupies the largest landmass in the Arctic Circle. A project was initiated to resolve emission sources of BC in the Russian Federation by using the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF). It used atmospheric BC data from two Arctic sampling stations at Alert Nunavut, Canada, and Tiksi Bay, Russia. The geographical regions of BC emission sources in Russia were identified and summarized as follows: (1) a region surrounding Moscow, (2) regions in Eurasia stretching along the Ural Mountains from the White Sea to the Black Sea, and (3) a number of scattered areas from western Siberia to the Russian Far East. Particulate potassium ions, non-marine sulfate, and vanadium were used to assist in resolving the source types: forest fire/biomass burning, coal-fired power plant, and oil combustion. Correlating these maps with the BC map helped to resolve source regions of BC emissions and connect them to their corresponding source types. The results imply that a region south of Moscow and another north of the Ural Mountains could be significant BC sources, but none of the grid cells in these regions could be linked to forest fires, oil combustion, or coal-fired power plants based on these three markers.
Any comprehensive simulation of air pollution in the Arctic requires an accurate emission inventory. Using a community global emission inventory EDGAR v4.2 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research), GEOS-Chem modeling underestimated aerosol optical depth by 150–300% when compared to ground-based sites in Russia. Emissions from power plants, gas flaring, and mining were found significantly underestimated or even missing in EDGAR’s Russian emission inventory. Overall, we find EDGAR underestimated Russia’s emissions especially at high latitudes and this could overlook the impact of Russian emissions on the Arctic if EDGAR is used as input for models.
A detailed review of the existing experimental and statistical methodologies for particulate matter (PM) emissions used in Russian Federation has been summarized in a report by Scientific Research Institute for Atmospheric Air Protection (SRI Atmosphere). The report provides information on PM emission regulations, enforcement, control and reporting employed in Russia (as of 2012).
Selected methodologies have been summarized in English in a publication by K. Huang et al. See below the publication titled Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation.
This study develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile.